Has Anti Globalization Become Mainstream Politics
The movement of capital from where it is available abundantly to places where it has a high demand has always been associated with regulations, albeit new forms of regulation, that reflects the hegemonic power of that capital. An insight about the kind of changes brought forth by this flow of capital in locales that are entirely different from where it has originated shall lead one to understand the basic impulses of movements that challenge it. This paper makes a brief attempt towards understanding challenges against the larger process of globalisation in different parts of the world. Whereas the paper largely concentrates on the developing context implicit in its analysis is the fact that developing and developed worlds are not strictly geographical markers that could be identified easily under the labels of nation states or under the rubric of North and South or East and West. On the other hand, as Spivak has argued, just as there exist First worlds among the Third world there are Third worlds visible among the First ones also. Although the paper’s major focus in anti-globalisation movements a major part of it tempts to focus on the conditions that have led to the formation of these movements. The paper is divided into five sections including this introduction. In the next section, a discussion is initiated about the origins and different understandings of globalisation with regard to its consequences upon labour, environment etc. In the third section an attempt to understand movements that oppose and resist globalisation as also their coexistence is undertaken. The fourth section discusses specific instances of such attempts to resist the hegemonic capacity of forces initiated by globalisation. The instances discussed in this paper are the Chipko movement in India, the Zapatistas in Mexico and the MST (Landless Workers Movement) in Brazil. The fifth section concludes the paper.