William of Ockham
This essay considers the foundational elements of Marx’s philosophical system, namely the transformation of money into capital. Marx philosophy considered the commodity production process, the creation of surplus-value, and argued that capitalism was an unhealthy social process that would lead to the self-destruction of the capitalist economic system. This essay considers the nature of these William of Ockham and Karl Marx philosophic systems.The most renowned element of Ockham’s philosophical system has come to be referred to as Ockham’s razor. Ockham’s razor is the belief that when there are several conflicting theories or hypotheses generally the simplest explanation is the most accurate. Ockham stated, “It is useless to do with more what can be done with less.” In this regard, he is referring to the nature of hypotheses in that the theories need to have as few assumptions as possible since they are meant to explain and predict events. While several logical arguments can be levied against Ockham’s theory, in great part its emphasis on simplicity functions to greatly simplify and support the theoretical process.One of the major problems in medieval philosophy concerned how to explain how things remain the same while constantly occurring in a state of universal flux. For instance, one philosopher stated that one person never steps into the same river twice. In a sense, this could be applied to all objects in nature. As everything is changing the very stability of reality is brought into question. St. Augustine and Plato disagreed with this assumption and argued that certain objects were universals and remained the same. They believed in universal essences that remained the same while outward physical qualities changed. this is referred to as metaphysical realism.Conversely, Ockham argued against the belief in metaphysical realism.