Fluency Interventions in SpeechLanguage Therapy
The potential impact of stuttering on children’s development is severe and the problems outgrow as the child enters into the adolescent stage affecting their self-esteem, self-image, and academic and occupational relationships. If speech and language disabilities identified and intervene at an early age, these disorders can display positive outcomes. The treatment is often personalized and focuses on the particular area of the speech, in which a child is lagging behind like spoken language difficulties, articulation, pronunciation, etc. There are mainly two types of speech therapy specifically for the adults who stutter: fluency shaping and stuttering modification therapy. Fluency shaping is conceptualized on operant conditioning techniques which relaxes the overstimulation and overactivity in stuttering to deliver a fluent speech. Stuttering Modification Therapy emphasizes the reduction of stuttering severity and not complete elimination of stammering. Both types of treatment are evidence-based and showed a positive outcome with self-management and modeling strategies. But the success rate of both the treatments varies among the stuttering population. Long term lasting effects of stuttering modification technique is not yet evidenced like fluency shaping therapy.Speech and language disabilities are the most widely displayed disorder in early childhood. It has been estimated that around 5-8% of children less than 6 years might show impaired speech and language function and 1.4 % of children less than 10 years show speech disfluency (Prasse Kikano, 2008). Speech disorders are characterized by incorrect speech sounds and voice, and impaired articulation. The individuals who suffer from speech difficulties have a stuttering problem, and can not pronounce the sound properly (Prelock, Hutchins, Glascoe, 2008). Language disorders make the children nonreceptive of other’s language and also they are not able to express themselves properly and adequately. The language obstacles involve impediments in signed/written language, grammar, phonology, and semantics. Though stammering or stuttering is most commonly found in early childhood it becomes worrisome when it is predictable and persistent. The characteristics of the dysfluent speech like frequency, the proportion, and duration of dysfluency types differentiate stutter children from a normal child. The behavioral symptoms like movements of the eye (like eye blinking), head (like head-bobbing), and body (grimacing) might not be coherent with the speech in such children (Gordon, 2002. (Prelock, 2008). Their body language shows frustration or embarrassment.