Summarise 2 Theories
Summary of Two Theories Summary of Two Theories This paper will discuss the social control theory and the labeling theory of criminal law. It will give out a clear summary of their understanding, underline the principles they engage in and name their main contributors and their contributions. Finally, it will come up with a critical assessment of whether students believe in the two theories or not. Social Control TheoryThe Social Control theory states that utilizing the process of social learning and socialization establishes self-control. It also states that utilizing the two processes will decrease the inclination of engaging in behaviors that are said to be antisocial. Social Control Theory circulates around certain principles (Siegel, 2008). These principles are peoples relationships, values, commitments, norms, and values. These principles encourage people not to break the laws of the land. Major contributors and their contributions to the Social Control theory follow assertions by a couple of ideologists.Albert J. Reiss defined personal control as the ability of a person to cease from meeting needs in ways which clash with the rules and norms of the society. Social control, he stated, refers to the skill of social groups to create rules or norms that bring full success. The second main contributor was Jackson Toby. He quarreled that the casual adolescent is an entrant for group socialization. He recognized group socialization as a piece of social control that connects, motivates, and that leads to wrongdoing. He put out the idea of stakes in conformity to make clear the candidacy for studying such experiences (Siegel, 2008). This theory does not reflect on motivational issues. It argues that individuals may decide to engage in a variety of activities, unless the varieties are restricted to the processes of social learning and socialization. This is taken from the Hobbesian analysis of human nature that is stated in the Leviathan. that all options are controlled by implicit agreements, social contracts and understanding among citizens. Thus, ethics will be set in the building of social orders, consequences and assigning costs to assured choices and terming some of the choices as immoral, evil or unlawful (Siegel, 2008).Labeling TheoryLabeling theory closely relates to symbolic interaction and social construction analysis theory. Labeling theory maintains that disobedience is not inherent in wrong doers, but instead looks at the possibilities of majorities to negatively tag minorities or those seen as weak from normal cultural norms. The theory circulates around certain principles. These principles are how the behavior and self identity of individuals may be influenced or determined by the terms used to classify or describe them. The principles are linked to the concepts of stereotyping and self fulfilling prophecy (Siegel, 2008). Major contributors and their contributions to the labeling theory follow include:Howard Becker argued that social groups generate deviance. This is through creating regulations whose violation sets up deviance and by applying those roles to groups and terming them as outsiders. From this approach, deviance is not about the degree of the act that the individual commits, but rather a consequence of the punishment to a lawbreaker (Siegel, 2008). George Herbert Mead looked at the inner processes of how the brain set up ones self image. According to Becker, thinking is both a pragmatic and social process, derived from a model of two people discussing ways of solving a problem. In conclusion, labeling theory relates itself typically not with the usual roles that describe people’s livelihood, but with those distinct roles that society provides for deviant behavior. These distinct roles are called deviant roles, social stigma, or stigmatic roles (Siegel, 2008). A social role refers to a set of prospects people have concerned behaviors of other individuals. Social roles are essential for the organization and performance of any group or society. People anticipate the postman, for instance, to follow certain fixed rules concerning how he performs his duty. Deviance, for a sociologist, does not mean something ethically incorrect, but rather a conduct that is condemned by culture. Deviant actions can comprise of both non-criminal and criminal acts.ReferencesSiegel, L. (2008). Criminology. California: Wadsworth Publishing.