Operational Arts Napoleon versus Stonewall Jackson
Napoleon and Fredrick II had introduced a new concept of ‘warrior-king’ who can apply diplomatically as well as military power for his own aims …and thus could more directly tailor military actions to strategic aims–and more thoroughly conclude peace following decisive military events.The warfare was in evolution even in the age of Napoleon. He had cleverly noticed the problems of sustenance and movement of armies on the battlefield and he took advantage of it. He had increased the mobility of the armies and had applied his creative tactics in the art of warfare, especially in the quick formation of army combinations. His creativity and insight into the affairs of War tactics had won him great victories. Critics believe that Napoleon’s victory lies mainly in his ability in synthesizing and exploiting the developments made by others. He did not rely on personal novelties. rather he tried to gain concepts from the war tactics applied by others. This approach ended the earlier force employment, as opposed to weapons technology or logistical means3. Napoleon was about action. he did not share Jomini’s focus on principles.4 To him, the war was what is done on the battlefield, not in books. Though napoleon had not proposed a definite theory of War as his main concern was an application of tactics, Jomini and Clausewitz have interpreted his actions and strategic aims to lay a basis for modern art and science of war. They had studied the operational circumstances and strategies applied by napoleon and they had added the active factors in the theory and art of war operations: pivotal points, the main focus, climax, etc. Operational arts is a modern concept that deals with the conception and execution of military operations through the direction of military forces for particular strategic intentions. The whole operation involves the combining of the forces and allocating of the assets to planned units.