Human Resource and Organizational Behavior
The bureaucratic organization approach suggested the importance of employee empowerment for managers (GRIFFIN, 2010, p.455).Personality is referred to as the actions exhibited by individuals and the way an individual thinks about the world due to his/her experiences (GRIFFIN, 2010, p.67). Perception is the procedure through which an individual analyzes the stimuli available in the world around them (GRIFFIN, 2010, p.76).According to the behaviorist approach, personality is the total outcome of the connections that an individual has with his/her environment (GRIFFIN, 2010, p.69). Behaviorist gives importance to the behaviors that are easily observable and rejects the importance of inner drives. According to the trait approach, individual acts in a particular way because of the characteristics that have been invested within him since birth (GRIFFIN, 2010, p.70).The two common distortions of the process of perception formation are stereotyping and halo effect. The procedure of identifying certain acts or behaviors with all the members of a particular group is recognized as stereotyping (GRIFFIN, 2010, p.76). Believing that if an individual has certain qualities. he/she may even have other qualities regarded as a halo effect (GRIFFIN, 2010, p.76).a) The two ways of learning proposed by the behaviorist are operant and classical conditioning. Classical conditioning example: An individual had food at a restaurant and experienced food poisoning, next time whenever the individual crossed that restaurant he experienced nausea (GRIFFIN, 2010, p.108). Operant conditioning example: employee rewarded with increased pay due to his excellent performance throughout the year. The employee works harder while expecting that he will be rewarded again if he continuous to perform well each year (GRIFFIN, 2010, p.107).