Bereavement and 9/11 Phone Calls from the Towers
Several models have been proposed within the 20th century that has brought more attention to the matter and have improved awareness of the need for sensitivity towards individuals suffering from grief after recent bereavement or diagnosis with a terminal illness. These models have also illustrated the need for grief as part of the bereavement process.The stages are usually referred to in this order, but the model does not suggest that these must be followed in a linear fashion in the grieving process, nor does it suggest that each stage must be experienced only once (Flatt, 1987). The model was initially derived from Kubler-Ross’s experiences with those who had recently been diagnosed with a terminal illness but was later expanded to be relevant to anyone who had experienced a recent catastrophic loss.Each of the five stages is described within the work by Kubler-Ross (1973). Denial is described as being completely unaware of the situation that one is in. The most important part of denial is that the person within this stage will often feel fine or even good in themselves and will thus appear strange to those on the outside who cannot understand why this person is not experiencing grief. This stage is usually considered to be one of the shortest (Friedman, 1984) as a complete denial of the event cannot continue forever.The next stage described in this work is anger. Again, it is important to note that this may not immediately follow denial in the process. The anger experienced by the individual here may be directed at anyone, including the recently deceased. For example, someone may ask ‘why did you have to die and leave me alone?’ of the deceased one, with some anger being expressed at the fact that this person has ‘left’ life without permission. It is also possible to be angry at the perpetrator of the death, whether this is considered the doctors, the murderer, the driver, or whoever can be found responsible (Barone amp. Ivy, 2004).