The Life Cycle of the Photon
Both at the micro and macroscopic the effects of this force are observable as these photons have zero rest mass that allows interactions at long distances (Newton, 1949). Photons can be best explained through quantum mechanism and they have wave particle duality that means they exhibit properties of particles and waves both. Like for instance a photon can be refracted by the lens and can display wave interference with itself and also perform as particle while its position is measured.
Max Planck, In the year 1900 working on the black-body-radiation suggested that energy can only be released in packets in the electromagnetic waves. In 1901 he named these particles energy particles. The quanta was used meaning particles. Later Albert Einstein in 1905 suggested the electromagnetic waves can exist in discrete-wave-packets called light quantum. The word photon was derived from a Greek word for beam. Photon was the term coined by Gilbert Lewis, in 1926 via the light concept in discrete particles form photon had been present around for ages and had been formalized in Newton’s science of optics’ construction. In Physics photon is denoted by a sign γ derived from the gamma rays whereas in Chemistry it is denoted by hv.
The photon is an elementary particle which has no mass. It is impossible that a photon decays on its own although its energy can be created or transferred through interaction with the other particles. They are electrically neutral and rare particles that are similar to their antiphoton and antiparticle. Photons are the spin 1 particles with spin axis which is parallel to travelling direction. This feature allows the polarization of light.
Light has properties of particle and wave both. When the light is taken to be as a flow of particles then these particles are known as photons (Bialynicki- Birula, 1994). Each photon carries a distinct energy packet. The beam intensity is dependent upon the photon